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How can we exercise correctly?Learn these two tips | Exercise

The number of this text is 6601, and the reading time is expected to be 15 minutes.

Reading makes people full and shared people.At the end of the article, there is a mind map to help you sort out the essence of the context in the text.Welcome to read, you are one step away from knowledge.

The book shared today is “Exercise”

The author of this book Daniel Liberman, a professor of human evolutionary biology at Harvard University, director of the Department of Human Evolution.The author of the best -selling book “The Story of the Human”.In 1993, he obtained a doctorate degree in anthropology at Harvard University.Research fields spans multiple disciplines such as paleontology, anatomy, physiology, and experimental biomechanics.In terms of research methods, both focus on laboratory research and frequent inspections in the wild.

Study human health and diseases from the perspective of evolution. It is believed that the increase in modern diseases such as diabetes is caused by the common impact of physical and cultural evolution.He was awarded the title of “Harvard College Professor” from 2010 to 2015 and was elected academician of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2020.

How much do we know about exercise?Are we born for rest, or for running?Will running destroy your knees? Which sports is best for me?Is laziness an abnormal behavior?Do I need to sleep for 8 hours every night?Can we run fast and far away?Is sports equal to exercise?

Exercise is only a phenomenon that appears in the near future in the process of human evolution.Harvard’s evolutionary biologist Daniel Libermann told us why we have never evolved to exercise for many years of research and experience around the world.

In this book that breaks myths, Libeman told us that exercise is not human instinct.From the perspective of anthropology and chemistry, Lieberman explored our bodies and cracked 12 fallacy about exercise. It taught us that we can correctly treat our bodies and perform correct physical activities to help those anxiety and confusion about exerciseAnd entangled people to put exercise again in the right position.

01,
Static physical activity

The author mentioned in the book that even if you are a super active person, the energy you consume on other things may not consume more energy to maintain life.

For example, if you are sitting and writing, except for a slight breathing for 15 to 20 times per minute, there seems to be no clear signs of signs that any system of the body is working hard to support our lives.But in fact, my heart is shrinking at a frequency of 60 times per minute, pumping blood to every corner of my body; but in fact, my heart is shrinking at 60 times per minute to pump blood to me to meEvery corner of the body and so on.

Do these functions consume energy so much? Do you need to consume so much energy in your body?The book refers to a concept, and the author believes that human beings have not evolved the ability to develop exercise until now.What is exercise?It is a series of planned physical activities that people deliberately made in order to achieve some purpose, such as good health or strong.

The reason why this conclusion comes from 2013, the author went to northwestern Tanzania in Africa to visit a primitive tribe called the Haza tribe.This tribe is currently one of the few people who maintain the lifestyle of human ancestors.Among them, men are mainly hunting, and women are mainly picked.When he arrived at the Haza tribe, he was stunned by the scene in front of him: the people in the tribe, no matter men, women, and children, almost do the same thing, that is, sitting without doing nothing.

Seeing this scene, the author can’t help but doubt: Is human evolution so far? Is it born for rest or for running?This requires us to understand the energy consumption of humans under static and dynamic.

1. Energy consumption

This requires us to know 3 points:

The first is to rest and metabolize.It refers to a person who does nothing, sitting quietly in a chair, the calories consumed every hour.If a 82 kg of adult male is standard, he consumes about 70 calories per hour, which is equivalent to the calories of an orange.One day, he consumed about 1700 calories.

Where do these heat be used?It is used to maintain our life activities and metabolism, such as breathing, heartbeat, vascular contraction and digestion.

The second is the basic metabolic rate.The measuring basics need to be at a dark environment and room temperature at 21 degrees, and it is necessary to wake up a person who has just woke up from 8 hours of sleep. At the same time, the diet should be 12 hours from the previous meal.At this time, what is the energy consumption that can be measured?Similarly, an 82 -kg adult man has a basic metabolic rate of 1530 calories.This is the energy consumption measured by a person close to the coma. Because you just wake up, the state of the most basic line of the human body consumes 1530 calories.

Third, daily energy consumption.It refers to the energy consumed by a person every day in normal work and life, including going to work, speaking, work, etc.In this case, a 82 kg man consumes about 2,700 calories per day.

These data show that a very important problem is that a person’s energy is used to maintain life activities every day, so laziness is important to preserve energy.

The author quotes a hunger test in the book.This experiment is very famous because it is difficult to do.It is difficult for us to do such a “unprecedented” hunger experiment in our lives, and it happened during World War II. It was completed by a professor at the University of Minnesota and 36 very great volunteers.

The cycle of hunger experiments is 24 weeks.In the first 12 weeks, 36 volunteers per person per day to consume 3,200 calories. This heat is basically a normal range.However, they need to walk 35 kilometers per week, and they need to do 15 hours of general strength labor, such as cutting firewood and laundry.

In the first 12 weeks, because the calories were relatively sufficient, everyone was able to accept these physical labor, but in the next 12 weeks, the calories they consisted suddenly to 1570 calories.In theory, it looks normal, but when hunger and labor are combined, it becomes physical and mental torture.

After 24 weeks, what is the result?In addition to the decline in weight, they have two particular changes.

First, emotions become extremely unstable.Some people are very low, some people have a bad temper, some people have nightmares every night, and everyone’s attention becomes very disagreeable.A volunteer cut off his fingers when he chopped firewood during the day.

Second, their static metabolic rate fell 40%.This is a very important change.Relatively speaking, their weight decreased by 25 %, while the decrease in the metabolic rate of the static rate exceeded the decline in weight.

This result shows that the rest and metabolic rate of people is not unchanged, but it can change with the environment.Why is this?Because static metabolism is the energy that the body is willing to provide life, not the energy that must be provided.If the energy is sufficient, it can provide all aspects of the body, but once the energy is insufficient, it will first provide priority organs such as the brain and liver.Therefore, after a 24 -week hunger experiment, the heart rate of volunteers dropped by 1/3, and the body temperature dropped from 37 degrees to 35.4 degrees.Even in a warm environment, they will feel very cold, the skin becomes dry, peeling, and sperm quality decreases, and the number of blood cells has decreased.

The hunger test also shows that a very important thing is that when people are resting, they do not mean that their bodies are in static.”Although we don’t seem to do anything, in fact, many physiological activities that maintain vitality and high energy have always been in progress. Our body consumes energy at all times.”

2. Hidden health dangers caused by sedentary

Why is it bad for sitting for a long time?In modern life, sedentary is indeed bad for the body, and it will make our body in a state of chronic inflammation.why?

First, sedentary can cause obesity and then cause inflammation.When people sit still, energy is easy to accumulate in the body and cause obesity.When people reach adulthood, the number of fat cells does not change.At this time, people get fat, which is the increase in fat cells.Such fat cells accumulate in the human body, which is very easy to affect metabolism. It summons many inflammation factors to induce inflammation.

The second is that sedentary can reduce the ability of the body to absorb sugar and fat, which causes inflammation.In the post -meal state, our digestive system is digesting food.At this time, the blood glucose and blood lipid levels in the body are relatively high. If you can’t sit for a long time, these heat will easily accumulate in our abdomen and viscera to form internal organs, which will affect human metabolism.

Third, the psychological pressure generated by sedentary can cause chronic inflammation.Under what circumstances will we sit for a long time?When working in the office, coupled with the unwillingness of work, the environment does not change, so psychological pressure will occur.Once there is psychological pressure, the pressure hormone of the human body, that is, cortisol, will increase, causing the inflammatory response of the body.

Fourth, sedentary can make a person’s muscle stiff, and then cause chronic mild inflammation.Muscle secretes muscle factors. When muscle performs medium and high -intensity contraction activities, muscle factors will be secreted in large quantities to eliminate local or even general inflammation of the body, thereby helping us maintain health.

In fact, sitting is an instinct that humans evolve. The reason why sitting for a long time brings a lot of health problems is not because of sitting itself, but because of the way of sitting.How to deal with this situation?

First, don’t sit still for a long time.Second, to sit in vitality, just sit and move.Finally, it is recommended to develop the habit of exercise and physical activity.These suggestions help reduce the harm caused by sedentary to the body for a long time.

02,
Human sports ability

What are the very strong sports capabilities of human evolution?The book refers to physical activity about speed, strength and endurance.

1. Running

People are very good at running, but people’s running is not a significant advantage.At present, the fastest running person is Bolt, “Flying” athletes.He set a world record of more than nine seconds.It is said that during his peak period, the speed of running was 37 kilometers per hour.

What level is this achievement in nature?Bolt can win pine and hippos.Most people can’t even run.Moreover, not only did we not be fast, but we also sprinted for a short time. Usually, we couldn’t persist in thirty or forty seconds, so we had to stop and rest.

Why is this?This is mainly related to human energy supply.The human body provides energy with ATP, that is, triple adenosine.When we exercise, they will provide energy for cells.But the cost of cell manufacturing and storage is too great.If a person walks for 1 hour, he needs to consume more than 14 kilograms of ATP; if you walk for one day, the weight consumption even exceeds the weight of a person.It is impossible for us to carry such a heavy battery, so the ATP stored in the body does not exceed 100 grams every time.For these 100 grams of energy, we have consumed light a few steps before the start.

At this time, the body will start another energy supply method, called phosphate, it is also a chemical energy supply method.However, 10 seconds of sprint running will consume 60 %, and it will be exhausted in about 30 seconds.

Then, the second process of the human body will open the energy charging called sugar.Glycogen is anaerobic exercise.It is a decomposition of sugar and enzymes in anaerobic environment.One sugar molecule can decompose two energy to charge two ATPs.However, it produces lactic acid and hydrogen ions, and then stimulates nerves and cause muscle soreness.This is also a very important reason for the next day, the next day, we will feel the pain of waist and knees soreness.

“A person with good health, the storage sugar can support running more than 24 kilometers.” However, this is not enough.If we want to run longer, we need to open a longer -term energy supply method, which is aerobic metabolism.”The ATP generated by a sugar molecule is 19 times that of sugar -littering.” Although its energy supply is very high, it takes a long time to burn. ThereforeSeeing long.Therefore, humans are not good at running short -distance, because speed is not as good as animals, but in terms of endurance, it is outstanding.

So why do we have such strong endurance?This is related to human hunting methods.

According to relevant research research, human ancestors have a very strong hunting method called “endurance hunting method”.We do not have sharp teeth and strength, and the speed is not the fastest, so we fight endurance.

Human ancestors often choose to chase a prey in a hot morning.At this time, the prey rushed to escape, and we couldn’t catch up with it.But we can find its trace.This prey couldn’t run long.Due to the rise of body temperature, it has to stop cooling the body, and then the human ancestor needs to catch up before the animal temperature is cooled, and then it will run again.Several cycles, this animal was too tired to fall to the ground.At this point, hunting becomes very easy, and may only need to catch them.

“Endurance Hunting Method” is an important way of hunting by human beings to survive.Therefore, people have strong endurance.And human beings are so good at endurance running related to the structure of the human body.

First, our body can maintain stability when we run.What do humans keep their body balance?It is related to our developed gluteal muscles.When we are running, the gluteal muscles begin to tighten violently, and the tightening of gluteal muscles can keep our body stability when we run.

The second is that people have evolved long legs, long elastic tendons and arch.Every time we run, our body structure can make the legs form a strong potential energy, so that we are good at running.

Third, people have evolved a very powerful cooling system.Most mammals have few sweat glands, so they need to open their mouths when they run.However, the surface area of their lips is too small, which is not enough to cool the body.In addition, when they run, they can’t breathe in their mouths, which also makes most animals can’t run long, they have to stop breathing to cool down to cool down.

However, humans are different.We have faded hair, and the whole body skin has more than 5 million to 10 million sweat glands.When running, the amount of sweats of the body can reach 1 liter, which is a very good cooling system.

In addition, we have a strong heart.One part of a person’s heart is called the ventricle, which is mainly responsible for pumping blood.The muscles of the ventricular ventricular are very developed. When running, the blood volume of the heart pump can reach more than 5 times.These blood can be assigned to the limbs, or the skin can be allocated to promote cooling.

2. Walk

Walking is also related to endurance.The average men in the primitive tribe should go 14.5 kilometers a day because they want to hunt, and the average women have to go 9.6 kilometers.The author mentioned in the book that the evolution of human evolution is a very important way to survive, so it naturally becomes a way of energy saving and efficient.This means that we only need little energy to take a long distance.Therefore, it is difficult to lose weight and can lose weight, but the effect is not good.

3. Fighting

A physical activity of human evolution is fighting.However, with the development of society, human beings are becoming more and less good at fighting.Why?It is mainly related to human hunting methods.

First of all, in the original state, human beings tend to hunt collective hunting, so teamwork is important.If a person is too powerful and fights alone, no one cooperates with him, his chances of success will be very low.

Secondly, we gradually learned to use weapons.One of the skills made humans jump at the top of the food chain at once. This is throwing, that is, throwing things.Humans are the only animals that can hold their hands and throw accurately.Other primates, such as monkeys and orangutans, will throw things, but if they hold their hands over their shoulders, they are not allowed.And humans are the only animals that can be thrown steadily.

Finally, humans invented sports.Many sports are a continuation of human hunting and fighting.In modern times, people with sports instead of fighting are actually a reflection of the spirit of evolution and civilization.

03,
How to cultivate the habit of exercise

How do we cultivate exercise habits?The author gave two suggestions.

1. Be funny

How to make exercise interesting?

First, join the exercise team and don’t exercise alone.This is also a way of hunting in ancient times, that is, people are animals in teamwork.A person’s action is easy to give up, but if there is a companion to do one thing together, in the atmosphere of encouraging and talking to each other, this incident will become more interesting, and it will be easier for us to stick to it.Many people like to go to the gym because even if they don’t like sports, they are easier to stick to that atmosphere.

The second is that the long time of exercise can make people feel happy.Many people are addicted to running because after exercise, the brain will secrete some chemical hormones, such as endogenous and endogenous marijuana.These hormones are similar to the natural reward mechanism of opioids.

Hormones often need to be secreted after exercise for a certain time, such as endorphins that need to exercise for 20 minutes.Therefore, we have more exercise time to experience these happy hormones secreted by the brain.They can make people feel interesting.

The third is to stop self -deception and choose your favorite sports.

2. Turn exercise into a necessity

The author gave two ways, one called help, and the other was called “intimidation”.

What is booming?The so -called “boost” is to impact the behavior of others through non -compulsory ways without restricting the choice of others and not stimulating economic rewards.

For example, you plan to exercise the next morning, so you can prepare the sportswear the night before, so that the first thing you do after getting up is to get dressed and you can go at any time. Of course, you can also wear sportswear to sleep.

What is “intimidation”?

For example, signing up for fitness courses, if you shake during exercise, your companion will encourage you to continue.For another example, sign a commitment with a website like stickk.com. If you don’t exercise, they donate money for you to give you the organization that you don’t like (equivalent to a big stick); if you exercise, they will donate money for youGive your favorite organization (equivalent to carrots).

So how do we choose sports and exercise time?According to the experts from the US Department of Health and Public Services, adults should perform at least 150 minutes of medium -intensity aerobic exercise per week, or 75 minutes of high -intensity physical activity, or combine the two.For children, at least 60 minutes per day.In addition, everyone should conduct two strength training twice a week.

04,
How to deal with the disease through exercise

The author proposes a concept called loss -making diseases.What’s the meaning?Many diseases are caused by the modern lifestyle of modern lifestyles.Of course, there are many reasons for these diseases, one of them is one of the reasons.

1. Obesity

The first loss of dating in the book is obesity.Obesity is mainly related to too many energy we consume and too little activity.Studies have shown that if a person walks 3,000 meters a day, it can lose 2.7 kilograms of fat in one year and it is not easy to rebound.Therefore, if you want to lose weight, don’t forget, add exercise on the basis of diet.

What kind of exercise is the best for improving obesity?What is advocated is cardiopulmonary training, such as running.If you just practice strength, it is difficult to lose weight.If you run 20 kilometers per week, you will quickly burn a lot of fat, and you will lose bad visceral fat.

2, 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes, also known as insulin resistance diabetes, is caused by the body’s sensitivity to insulin.Where did it appear?Related to the reduction of activities.Sitting for a long time is one of the reasons. It will cause abdominal fat accumulation, making people’s insulin receptor sensitive, and then increase blood sugar.

How to improve?Adding exercise on the basis of medication is a good way.The exercise should be mainly to exercise in medium intensity to high intensity.一项研究表明,在明确健康饮食之外,糖尿病患者每周进行5~6次,每次30~60分钟的有氧运动,再加每周2~3次力量训练,一年后,一半人It can return to the degree of stopping drugs, and about 20%of people can reduce the amount of medication.

3. Cardiovascular disease

Our heart is equivalent to a pump, which is equivalent to pipelines, so cardiovascular diseases, either there is a problem with the pump, or a pipeline problem.Generally, there are more problems with pipelines.Its loss is also for example, such as excessive activity and excessive calories, which causes lipids and cholesterol to deposit on the vessel wall, which causes pipeline narrowing.

The narrow pipeline will cause ischemia and cause cerebral infarction or myocardial infarction. On the other hand, other pipelines will cause blood pressure to rise due to their efforts to imply through the stenosis.Therefore, exercise helps us improve cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.It is also recommended here for cardiopulmonary exercise. Cardiopulmonary exercise of more than 150 minutes per week can reduce blood pressure and promote cardiovascular health.

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